Avisa "The Bird Not Seen" http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/ Avisa "The Bird Not Seen" Ironia If we want to understand Willobie we need to be able to understand and recognize the concept of Ironia. Ironia is a Greek word that describes a particular writing style. It is a style where the author says one thing but means the opposite. Willobie His Avisa is from start to finish a book written in Ironian style. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=104884726 104884726 Contraria Contrariis Vigilantius Dormitanus A key introductory poem is signed Contraria Contrariis Vigilantius Dormitanus. This translates to Contrasting Opposites with opposites Wideawake : Sleepy head. This is a direct reference to St Jerome. St Jerome was a religious satirist who had harsh anti-feminist views and was a staunch advocate of female virginity. His views were challenged by Vigilantius ( The wakefull one) St Jerome went on the offensive and wrote a treatise called Contra Vigilantius ( against Vigilantius) in this text St Jerome ironically attacked Vigilantius calling him Dormantius ( Sleepy one). This is a real hint that the author of Avisa was doing exactly the same thing and was ironically attacking a woman by calling her the opposite of what she really was. The book "praises " an incredibly chaste woman called Avisa but When we read Willobies Avisa we realize that the woman who is intended to be the opposite of Avisa is Penelope. So the book is really a hidden attack on an unchaste woman called Penelope. In this instance the phrase may gather additional significance. Perhaps The author considers himself to be the wakeful (vigilant one) and considers H.W. to be the sleepy head (The Dreamer) and the full work is an attempt to make the dreamer H.W. wake up and realize the real truth about the woman that he is infatuated with http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=104191161 104191161 A book of opposites Willobie His Avisa is an ironic book of opposites. We are told that chaste Avisa is the opposite of unchaste Penelope but we discover that Avisa is THE SAME as unchaste Penelope. We are told that Avisa is poor but we discover that she is RICH , PENELOPE RICH to be exact. Avisa /Penelope constantly reverses classical legends, in leaving the nobleman she threatens to plunge a knife in his heart this is the opposite to Shakespeare's Lucreece who plunges a knife into her own heart rather than be an unchaste woman. It is she and not Ulysses who is the destructive Eagle. Avisa often inverts Biblical quotes She quotes Saint Paul who instructs not to share food with an immoral person then she promptly shares a drink with the Caveliero ,the most immoral suitor of them all. The book ends with the quote ever or never again this is an allusion to opposites. This tells us that the book from start to finish is about opposites.This tells us what the author is really implying about Avisa . Avisa isn't really loyal to her husband and doesn't love him. She is not constant She is not really rejecting the suitors. She is not chaste . http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=104468730 104468730 Poor Penelope Rich The central argument of the poem is that Avisa is poor, that she is Chaste , and cannot be compared to unchaste Penelope. In other words she is the opposite of Penelope. What we need to realise that the writer is using Ironia, everytime he is writing about Chaste Avisa who is poor he is implying the very opposite i.e. UNCHASTE PENELOPE RICH . Avisa is the public face of Penelope Rich she appears to be a virtuous woman but on close observation is actually a hypocrite . Penelope is her hidden unchaste and REAL personality. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105120034 105120034 Dream of the Geese and the Eagle. The name Penelope means bird this is one of the reasons why she is called Avisa. In the book Willobie His Avisa , Avisa is constantly referred to as an eagle . The name Penelope is classically linked to an eagle because in the Odyssey Penelope had a dream of a huge eagle that savaged a flock of Geese . This was supposed to be a portent warning of Ulysses return and his eventual slaying of Penelope's suitors. But Willobie his Avisa is a book of opposites and the author is reversing the legend, in this context it is PENELOPE WHO IS THE EAGLE and it is Penelope who has a destructive effect on her suitors. This particular dream was specifically mentioned in Willobie His Avisa's follow up libel " Penelope's Complaint" The constant comparison of Avisa to an Eagle is the author's way of intimating that Avisa's real name is Penelope.. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=104366899 104366899 Avisa The Eagle and H.W. The H.W . portion of Willobie his Avisa is the most important part of the book . On the surface it appears that H.W is vainly pursuing Avisa . But we need to remember this is a book of opposites. If we read very carefully H.W states that it is AVISA who is laying siege to his heart . We also notice a thematic reversal in the H.W dialog and many reasons are given for why Avisa would be bad for H.W. and not the other way around. It is very clear that the author of Willobie His Avisa has a deep concern for H.W. This is why Avisa is constantly referred to as an Eagle. The author sees her as a predator who is aggressively courting and snatching away snatching away H.W. This is a twisted allusion to the Ganymede myth where Ganymede is abducted by Aquilla the Eagle to be raped by Zeus. But in this twisted version it is the Eagle , Avisa ( Penelope Rich ) who is preying on H.W ( Henry Wriothesley).. In the authors next libel "The Affectionate Shepherd" We see the same scenario the young man is being aggressively courted by an older and beautiful woman. The myth is directly referred to because the young man is given the name Ganymede. The full H.W. dialog is to function as a cautionary tale directed at Henry Wriothesley about the dangers of getting involved with an immoral woman like Penelope Rich. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=104840881 104840881 The H.W. dialog. The H.W. dialog is the climax of the book Willobie his Avisa. Scholars have traditionally interpreted this passage as describing an unsucessful attempt by H.W. to seduce Avisa. But scholars need to realize that the book has been written in Ironia. The passage is actually stating that it is Avisa who is agressively courting H.W. who is completely under her spell. The passage is intended to act as a warning to H.W. ( Henry Wriothesley) about the dangers of becoming involved with Avisa ( Penelope Rich).In this passage Avisa constantly warns H.W that she may bring shame on him and there are many references to harlots and female immorality this is surprising considering that it is supposed to be the suitors who are immoral. There is a major thematic reversal in this passage and the author instead of depicting Avisa as a victim concentrates on outlining the reasons why a relationship with Avisa would be bad for H.W. I see powerful symmetry between this particular passage and Walter Map's mysoginistic satire " A letter from Valerius to Ruffinus arguing against marriage" In that text Valerius ( Walter Map ) is trying to dissuade his melancholy friend who has " love sickness " and is blinded by and infatuated with a woman that Valerius considers to be immoral. In the H.W. dialog I belive that it is the author himself who is trying to dissuade H.W. from getting into a relationship with immoral Avisa. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105253766 105253766 The "High flying " Eagle. Avisa is frequently compared to an Eagle that flies high above all sin. We must remember that the book is written in Ironia ie the book is saying one thing but meaning the opposite. What the author is really saying is that Avisa is an eagle who stoops to satisfy her carnal lust. The image of a stooping Eagle is associated bibically with the fall of Adam. The Elizabethan birds of Chastity were swan or dove or turtle dove. Avisa is never called any of these. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=104868314 104868314 Juvenal's satires and Ironia In the introduction Avisa is described using Juvenal's phrase " Rara Avis " which implies that a chaste woman is as rare as a black swan. Once again we see Irony being used to describe Avisa . Juvenal was a satire writer who was known for his use of savage Irony and also his anti - woman rhetoric. This is a real hint that Avisa is being described in terms of Ironia and also that it was a misogynistic work. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105449734 105449734 The bird not seen ( 1) In the introduction the author invokes a quote from Juvenal's satire Rara avis in terris nigroque simillima cygno ! " This is an ironic quote that translates " A rare bird in the lands and very like a black Swan". What he meant by this quote was something whose rarity would compare to that of a black swan or in other words as a black swan did not exist in Europe , neither did the supposed characteristics of the rare bird with which it was being compared. THE BLACK SWAN IS A METAPHOR FOR SOMETHING THAT DOES NOT EXIST. The author of Willobie his Avisa specifically states that chastity in women is as rare as a black swan 9In other words it does not exist). The author also refers to Avisa as being" a not seen bird ." The author is ironically implying that Avisa is a" not seen bird" or a black swan because chastity DOES NOT EXIST in AVISA. The concept of the "not seen bird " is of critical importance in understanding the book. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105499196 105499196 The Bird not seen (2) In Elizabethan times "rare as a black swan "did not mean that something was a rare event. It was an ironic way of saying that something was an IMPOSSIBLE event. Elizabethans did not realise that black even swans existed. Black swans live below the equator and the first European sighting of a black swan did not occur until 1697. In the introduction the author states that Chastity is as rare as a black swan . This means the author believes that chastity is not seen in any woman. Avisa is repeatedly called "a rare bird "and a bird not seen". This is an allusion to the black swan. The author is ironically stating that chastity is not seen in Avisa. This is a real indication that the full book has been written in ironia. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105615394 105615394 A'visa In the victory of English Chastity the author explains some possible meanings of the name Avisa . First He tells us that it comes from Latin A' Visum which means not seen. Then he states It refers to the Latin word for bird. Avis. Actually what the author is saying is that both terms have been incorporated into the name, and that the name Avisa implies " The bird not seen". This is continually directing the reader back to the introduction which is stating that Chastity is a bird not seen. This means Chastity is not seen in Avisa herself. Avisa's chastity is endlessly repeated throughout the book if Avisa is herself unchaste we can be certain that the full book is Ironic. This explains why the author has given this unchaste woman ( Penelope Rich) the nickname of Avisa. Also The poem is to serve as a warning to H.W. In the poem W.S. gives H.W. poor advice but Avisa warns H.W. of the dangers of getting into a relationship with her . John Roe thought that the name Avisa was a pun on Advisor but I notice that H.W. is suppossed to be a Spanish /Italian and that the word for warning in these languages is Avisar and Avvisar and that Avisa is a form of these verbs. Willobie His Avisa might well translate to Willobie - His warning. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105619774 105619774 Birth of Avisa The "birth of Avisa " is explained in the introductionary poem In praise of Willobie His Avisa by Contraia Contrariis Vigilantius Dormitanus. In this Poem Avisa and Penelope are merged into one then metamorphosed into an Eagle. Metamorphoses like these were common in the writings of Ovid and Spencer. Avisa and Penelope represent one person. There are two other examples of merged characters . The Cavaleiro is a merged character who represents both of Penelope Rich's brothers Robert and Walter Devereux. In addition the Nobleman represents two characters. Baron Rich and Avisa's husband. Avisa represents the two personas of the one woman - Penelope Rich. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=106572156 106572156 Exempla in bono and malo The author of Willobie his Avisa must have been familiar with the medieval satires of Walter Map. Because the layout of the introduction is exactly like Map' satires. Walter Map's satires were typically full of woman hating invective. I think that Willobie his Avisa is also an example of misogynistic literature. In the introduction to WHA sets of chaste women from antiquity (exempla in bono) ( virtuous women) are contrasted against unchaste biblical women .(exempla in malo) (harmful women) Then a mythological chaste goddess (Pallas Athena) is contrasted against an unchaste goddess, (Venus) . Effectively what this is saying is that true chastity is only seen in dead historical women or in mythological women .Then finally an ironic and false Rara Avis is introduced into the argument that is supposed to "disprove" this argument and show that a chaste woman can still be found. In Willobie His Avisa the ironic and false Rara Avis is Avisa herself. This type of layout follows EXACTLY the typical layout and argument style of the misogynistic medieval satires and is powerful evidence that Willobie His Avisa is itself a misogynistic satire whose central argument is that true chastity is seen in no woman least of all in Avisa. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105651450 105651450 The bird not seen (3) Bird imagery abounds throughout Willobie His Avisa . Avisa is constantly referred to as the bird not seen or the nympth not seen .This is a reference to Ovid metamorphoses 2.589 which describes Nyktimene who was the beautiful daughter of the Arcadian king Epopeus . She was a victim of incest instigated by her father and shamefully hid herself in the woods. The Goddess Athena took pity and changed her into an owl. Ovid writes " Bird she may be , but shuns the daylight and the watching eye guilt cursed, her shame shut in the dark unseen an utter outcastfrom the sky's bright sheen. Hounded from the sky by all". By this allusion the author is also indicating that Avisa is the not seen shame and guilt ridden bird. The author also calls Avisa" a chaste -found bird of noble price. " this is punning on Penelope's surname of Rich. It is noted the bird not seen Nyktimene IS seen on the title page sitting at the feet of Athena. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=104871165 104871165 Semper Eadem Avisa signs off all of her letters with the phrase " Always the same Avisa ". Always the same is a reference to Queen Elizabeth's personal motto Semper Eadem which translates to Always the same. This had led some researchers into thinking that Avisa was intended to represent the Queen. But this is NOT correct. We again need to remember that the book is written in Ironia. In signing her letters this way the author is saying that Avisa is as constant and chaste as Queen Elizabeth. But this is irony what the author is REALLY implying is that Avisa ( PENELOPE ) is the queen of inchastity. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105244243 105244243 mid 1593 to mid1594 Penelope's gap year By 1594 Penelope was effectively living a separate life to Robert Rich she had been in an affair with Charles Blount . She had already had a child to him in 1592. however in December 1593 . But their relationship at this point was distinctly rocky and Penelope actually called their relationship off The reason being that Charles could not marry her because she was already married.Charles Blount was posted over one hundred miles away in Portsmouth . Penelope was effectively single for all of 1594 . I believe that The relationship with Shakespeare and Wriothesley started at some point in 1593 was briefly interupted when Blount briefly returned then restarted in 1594 after Blounts posting to Portsmouth it was during 1594 that the love triangle of the sonnets occured. The libel Willobie his Avisa which outlines a love triangle between Penelope Rich and H.W and W.S. was first published in 1594 and many scholars believe that the sonnets were written in 1594.1593 - 1594 is also the year that we can link Shakespeare to Wriothesley. In 1595 Penelope fixated on Charles Blount and they started to openly live together. The love triangle was not formally recorded historically but it was recorded poetically in Shakespeare's sonnets and also in the independent and contemporary libels of Willobie his Avisa and The Affectionate Shepherd. Thomas Nashe in this book The Unfortunate Traveller Which he dedicated to Henry Wriothesley makes a knowing reference to Wriothsley being involved in a triagular relationship in 1593. The unfortunate Traveller was released 17th September 1593. I believe Shakespeare also made allusions to the event in a number of his plays. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105253765 105253765 Orlando Furioso John Harrington in 1592 completed his risqu� and non-literal translation of Ariosto's Orlando Furioso . It is a work that the author of Willobie his Avisa is definitely familiar with and has been influenced by, because in the poem "The victory of English Chastity" he uses the central character from Orlando Furioso - Rogero to act as the judge to decide whether Penelope or Avisa is a chaste woman. He judges against Penelope. Harrington was unusual amongst Elizabethan writers in that he was a critic of Philip Sidney's writings. It is interesting to note that there is an episode in Orlando Furioso where the main character Rogero is seduced by the beautiful and evil sorceress Alcina . It is noted that Alcina is described as having golden hair and black eyes. This is exactly the same physical appearance that Penelope Rich had in real life . Harrington also calls Alcina "that lascivious rich dame" (Harrington knew Penelope Rich and was known to pun on her surname) we need to wonder if Harrington was lampooning Sidney 's excessive idealization of Penelope Rich with this passage. We also note the similarity of the names Alcina and Avisa. In Orlando Furioso besotted Rogero was only able to see Alcina in her true light after he placed a magic ring on his finger. I am certain the author of Willobie his Avisa was familiar with this passage and is alluding to it and this is why he has introduced Rogero as the judge . Because Rogero had the ability to see Alcina AND Penelope for what they truly were. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=104292712 104292712 The Affectionate Shepherd Two months after The first publication of Willobie His Avisa The Affectionate Shepherd was published. This was one of the most controversial books of the Elizabethan era and instantly became a scandalous best seller. This was first published anonymously but another two months later The young poet Richard Barnfield would formally claim authorship. The book is of major interest to us because it runs a parallel narrative to Willobie his Avisa , but also because the book was personally dedicated to Penelope Rich. The book is without question a libel on Penelope Rich. The dedication is very ambiguous and sarcastically likens Penelope Rich to Vesta the Goddess of chastity. A furthur passage in the book states that Astrophil 's unrequited love for Stella had lead him to despair and ruin. Penelope Rich would have immediately recognized that this was an insulting reference to herself. The book then launches into a diatribe of homoerotic verse and describes the authors complaint about the aggressive courting of a young man by an older beautiful woman. We immediately recognize that this is a parallel narrative to the H.W dialog in Willobie his Avisa. We also recognise that this is the Elizabethan equivalent of a writer thumbing his nose at an aristocrat. The book demonstrates that Barnfield WAS a libel writer who used an ironic writing style and who had a grudge against Penelope Rich. I am entirely certain that Richard Barnfield had a significant part in writing the libel Willobie his Avisa. In claiming The Affectionate Shepherd as his own work Barnfield was taking a significant risk. There was every possibility that the book would incense either Penelope Rich's brother Robert Devereux or Charles Blount these men were the two leading soldiers of Elizabethan England and Devereux was known to have had a violent and unpredictable temper. How was Barnfield able to escape their wrath ? was he being protected ? Barnfield's writing career was very short I suspect he was threatened into silence by Essex circle members. In this book Barnfield left very clear encriptions in the text that are dedicated to Henry Wriothsley. These encriptions are still visible today over $00 years later. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105245771 105245771 Matthew Roydon Traditionally the poet Matthew Roydon has been forwarded as being the likely author of Willobie his Avisa. I disagree , the author of Willobie his Avisa is a young person who states that he was at Oxford university at the same time as Henry Willobie. This was the case for Barnfield. Roydon did attend Oxford university but 11 years before Willobie started. The author of Willobie his Avisa is fully familiar with all the lurid quotes from antiquity and the Bible and uses them freely . This again makes me think that the author is a young person. The author of Willobie his Avisa is quite an accomplished poet who is very scornful towards women and who seems to have an affection for H.W. Barnfield fits this profile. The author of Willobie his Avisa is a controversialist and a libel writer and Barnfield is demonstrably both. I explore this issue in depth in my authorship essay. Hadrian Dorrell states that the author of Willobie his Avisa also penned the famous poem of Sussana . The Ballard of Constant Sussana was an anonmyous work that dated to at least 1562 . This was published before Matthew Roydon was born . In addition the author of Willobie His Avisa seems to have a particular dislike of Penelope Rich, this was demonstrably not the case for Roydon who in his Elergy to Astrophil stated that it was no sin for Stella ( Penelope Rich ) to have loved Astrophil ( Philip Sidney). http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105756866 105756866 The Fox and The Cheese In the dialog between Avisa and the Caveliero a number of fables are referred to such as a fox preaching to gaggling geese . ( when a fox starts to preach Goslings must stay out of reach) and also to Aesop's fable of the fox and the crow. But as usual the author has inverted these fables so that it is Avisa who is described as being the dangerous fox who can entice her suitors with her beauty. Avisa confirms her status as a dangerous predator when she agressively states" the fox shall laugh as the asses weep. " It is interesting that the suitors are refered to as Geese, Geese as we recall are an allusion to Penelope and her dream of the Geese (her suitors) being slaughtered by the Eagle. It is very revealing that the most immoral suitor of them all considers Avisa to be an immoral and dangerous woman. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105861633 105861633 The spring of 1592 Sonnet 104 states three Aprils have passed since Shakespeare first met the fair youth. Some scholars think that Shakespeare is speaking metaphorically but I disagree. I suspect that April of 1592 had special significance for Shakespeare. Three Aprils and three hot Junes passed means that sonnet 104 was written in the summer of 1594 and implies that Shakespeare first met Wriothesley in April 1592. This could definitely be correct. Between Feburary and June 1592 Lord Strange's men performed a repertory of 23 plays that included one or more of Shakespeare's Henry V1 trilogy. This play must have been performed prior to June 23rd 1592 because this was when the theatres were closed due to an outbreak of the plague. The Shakesperian play could easily have been showing in April of 1592 because records show that it was definitely performed on the 3rd of May 1592. Wriothesley was an avid playgoer he may have seen this play in April 1592 ,enjoyed it and afterwards made Shakespeare's personal acquaintance. Perhapst this was the beginning of their friendship. I date the events of the love triangle to mid to late 1594 and believe that most of the sonnets were written between 1593 and 1594. Willobie His Avisa confirms this timeline. Another factor to consider is that the craze of sonnet writing was at its height in 1594 but had become far less popular by 1597. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105862122 105862122 Immortality The theme of immortality runs strongly throughout the sonnets especially those adressed to the Fair Youth. However the theme of immortality may have been introduced because Shakespeare knew that Wriothesley was personally obsessed with immortality. We know this because at age 13 as a student of Cambridge University Wriothesley wrote an essay about fame in which he states " Everyman burns with a certain boundless lust for fame". Shakespeare would have known about Wriothesleys lust for fame and presumably his fear of mortal oblivion and was probably playing on them . Shakespeare forwards himself as the person who can offer The Fair youth both fame and immortality and this is likely why these themes feature so heavily in the sonnets. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=105953627 105953627 Romance Of the Rose The author of Willobie his Avisa was familiar with the Medieval satires we know this because he copies their format of argument and use of Ironia to praise a suject that they were actually attacking. The Medieval work Romance of the Rose has sharply mysoginistic passages that are almost identical to those found in Willobie His Avisa. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=107212162 107212162 The trial of Avisa The trial of Avisa that takes place in the poem The Victory of English Chastity is a cynical and farcical rewriting of The judgement of Paris from Greek mythology. In Avisa's trial she is pitted against Penelope for the title of the most chaste wife. It is important to remember that in this mock trial two separate people are not on trial it is the two separate personae of Avisa who are on trial. Her chaste persona Avisa wins the garland of chastity whilst her unchaste persona Penelope is discredited as being an unchaste woman. Avisa represents the hypocritical public persona of Penelope Rich who appears to be a chaste woman. Penelope is her hidden unchaste and Real persona. It is highly significant that Penelope's two supporters in this trial are Juno and Venus . Juno was considered to be The Goddess of RICHES and Venus was the goddess of sexual desire. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=107282618 107282618 The Birth of Avisa The birth of Avisa is a rewriting of the mythological birth of Venus. Four goddessess have been involved in the birth of Avisa Juno, Venus ,Pallas Athena and Diana. Avisa has two aspects/personae , a chaste aspect which has been bestowed on her by Pallas and Diana and an unchaste aspect which has been bestowed on her by Juno and Venus. Her unchaste aspect is given the name Penelope. The goddess Venus also had two aspects one was that she was the Goddess of spiritual love and the other was that she was the Goddess of Physical attraction. Avisa also has two aspects a chaste and an unchaste aspect. Her unchaste aspect is refered to through Ironia. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=107284523 107284523 Avisa's song As the climax to Avisa's reply to her suitors she breaks into a song that the author tells us has been set to the tune of Fortune. Fortune or otherwise known as Fortune My Foe was a popular Ballad but the author of Willobie His Avisa had hundreds maybe thousands of other tunes to chose from so why has he picked this specific tune??? Following the death of Penelope Rich's father Walter Devereux a ballad was written for him called Essex's last goodnight. This was specifically set to the tune of Fortune. Penelope Rich would definitely have had an emotional connection with this tune the author knows this and this is why he has selected it. We also notice that an alternative word for fortune is Riches. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=107888578 107888578 Avisa's Husband Avisa's husband is an unseen character. Avisa constantly praises him and tells the world how much she loves him and how constant she is towards him however we know Avisa is only the public persona of Penelope Rich. In public Penelope never argued with Robert Rich in private it was a very different matter. Avisa's husband is powerless to prevent other suitors interacting with Avisa and some of them have know her for ten years and more. The suitors look down on Avisa's husband and think that he is uneducated. Avisa's husband is patriotic and has puritanical religious beliefs and hangs a badge of St George from his house. Avisa's husband is a cuckold. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=111244330 111244330 Ancient castle built by shepherds The appearance of Leez priory today is radically different to what its appearance would have been in 1594. Previously a large monastic castle built by the Augustinian monks lay directly to its East this was in disrepair and Rich made this ruin pay for itself by starting to demolish it and sell the stone as building material . He did exactly the same thing with nearby Hadleigh Castle. By 1735 all traces of the monastic ruin had dissapeared. The original castle would have resembled St Osyth's Abbey which dates to the same era and is pictured here. The Augustinian monks ( or the shepherds of souls as they were known ) built these castles. The poem states that Avisa's house is nestled between a lake to its west and an ancient castle to its East. That is exactly correct for Leez Priory. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=108226329 108226329 Willobie His Avisa is two books in one. Ultimately Willobie His Avisa needs to be seen as being two books in one . The text that is read at its face value to the casual reader is merely a smokescreen and functions to arouse the readers attention. The real text is an embedded libel that is accesible only through the device of Ironia. Ironia is what cuts trough the surface of this layered libel and reveals its ugly hidden message. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=108342395 108342395 An attention seeking device. To the casual reader the libel Willobie His Avisa appears to be a work that is making insulting references to the Queen . This was merely a device created to get a wide audience of readers who were looking for scandal. The other mechanism at play was that H.W. and W.S were scarcely disguised so even the casual readers would realise that this book was libelling William Shakespeare and would also realize that it was revealing that Henry Wriothesley was trying to woo a married woman. The REAL and vicious embedded libel would only be apparant to the targets of the libel H.W. W.S. and Penelope Rich and The Essex circle. These people would immediately understand exactly what this libel was REALLY insinuating. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=108344207 108344207 The rotten core. The outwardly innocent text of Willobie His Avisa hides a severe libel that lurks in its core . The libel that is revealing historically new information to us can only be seen once we realize that the full book has been written in Ironia. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=109173553 109173553 The Oxford Connection There is a definite connection between the libel Willobie His Avisa and Oxford University. The libel has been written by Hadrian Dorell who tells us that he is a * close friend and chamber fellow of the Oxford student Henry Willobie" this tells us that he himself is or was a student at Oxford. The libels keep coming from Oxford and are dated up to 1596. This means the author has ties to Oxford but possibly may not still be attending . Henry Willobie and Richard Barnfield's time at Oxford University overlapped by at least a year and they may well have known each other. Barnfield was proud of his ties with Oxford and in his later works signed himself Richard Barnfield Gent Graduate of Oxford. Despite this Barnfield appears to have to withdraw suddenly from his masters course the exact date of his withdrawal from is unclear, Barnfield was in London at sometime between 1593 and 1594. But I suspect that he maintained close ties with Oxford following his withdrawal.The reason that I think this is because Barnfield didn,t have a mother his beloved aunt had died and he was getting increasingly offside with his puritanical lawyer father so Oxford may have become a surrogate home and family for him. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=109040005 109040005 Hadrian Dorell : Anagram for Richard Barnfield Hadrian Dorell is the pseudonym for the editor of Willobie his Avisa who is... Richard Barnfield Richard Barnfield anagram ..... hadRian d rrel . I am not entirely certain what Dorell refers to but It is very obvious why the name Hadrian has been chosen. Hadrian was a Roman emperor who had a great love for a youth known as Antinous and wrote much love poetry to this particular youth who died and was lost to Hadrian who fell into a deep depression. We also remember that Antinous was the chief suitor of Penelope from the Penelope myth of Homer. We now see that the name Hadrian has direct bearings on the text of Willobie his Avisa and It becomes easy to see why Richard Barnfield has chosen this name . The author Hadian Dorell ( Richard Barnfield ) has a deep love for a beautiful young man Antinous ( Wriothesley) who is a suitor of Penelope ( Rich). Dorell is more difficult to explain , it may be a combination of Dore ( meaning Gold) and El ( The old testament name for God) In which case Hadrian Dorell Translates to Hadrian's Golden God. We know that Following the death of Antinous Hadrian made him a god and started a cult that worshiped golden statues of Antinous. Hadrian Dorell is likely a name that implies Barnfield's own homosexual desire for his own god like H.W. ( Henry Wriothesley). Barnfield tended to pick pseudonyms that were not anagrams of his own name but rather were names that reflected his own character. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=109280398 109280398 From the murky depths of time... From the murky depths of time a strange complex and extraordinary beast has been dragged to the surface and for the first time after 426 years we can now view it in its full entirety and we are equally amazed by both its ugliness but also by what it can teach us . WE CAN NOW FULLY UNDERSTAND THE LIBEL WILLOBIE HIS AVISA !!! http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=108472241 108472241 The Dark Lady and Loves Labour Lost Scholars have long noticed the striking similarities between The Dark Lady of The Sonnets and the character Rosaline from Love's Labour Lost . Scholars have often interpreted Rosaline as being a black woman but I disagree . Rosaline is described as a "Whitely wanton with a velvet brow and two pitchballs stuck in her head for eyes and one who will do the deed although Argus be her eunuch and her gaurd" What this passage tells us is that Rosaline has dark brows black eyes and is a promiscious woman whose complexion is approaching but not actually white in otherwords swarthy. Whitley means approaching white. Because of her slightly swarthy complexion blushes cannot be seen in her cheeks we are also told that her hand is snow white so it is certain that Rosaline is not a black woman. Instead Shakespeare is repeating the oxymoron of black being couched in white and representing the new form of beauty. This is an oxymoron Philip Sidney had played on in his Astrophel and Stella sequence which had been written for The Blonde Haired Black eyed Penelope Rich. Like Rosalind Sidney describes Stella as being guarded by a hideous Argus ( Her keeper Robert Rich). Even more revealing is the fact that there is significant punning on the name Rich associated with this character. Prior to Shakespeare's sequence Sidney had already celebrated Penelope Rich as yje woman who made black the new form of beauty . This is a conceit that Shakespeare specifically references in his description of The Dark Lady. The Dark Lady is a parody of Penelope Rich and Berowne ( Her suitor) represents Shakespeare himself. In his Dark Lady sequence Shakespeare worries that the Dark Lady will consider him an unlettered youth. In addition the Dark Lady is addicted to cosmetics to outwardly paint her fading mansion . The Dark Lady clearlyiwasn't young. And appears to be older than Shakespeare and also was of a higher education than Shakespeare correct both times for Penelope Rich. Rosaline and The Dark Lady and Stella were all depictions of the same person ... The Lady Penelope Rich http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=115223076 115223076 PUPPY ! Sidney had a long history of conflict with Edward de Vere , when Sidney was 15 he was matched to marry Anne Cecil a woman that de Vere would marry. The two men also clashed over Elizabeths matching with the Duke of Alencon which de Vere supported but Sidney did not. In 1579 Sidney had a ferocious argument with de Vere over the possession of a tennis court during this argument de Vere called Sidney a puppy . Sidney believed this to be a grave insult to his own parents and promptly challenged de Vere to a duel. The duel was actively pursued by Sidney and Elizabeth had to step in to prevent it. Stating that a duel could not occur between a Gentleman and an Earl.( An Earl was of much higher rank). Sidney was given two options either to apologise to de Vere or retire from court. Sidney refused to apologise and retired from court to live for a year at Wilton with his sister where he wrote his Arcadia romances . This argument gained national and international attention and Sidney was celebrated as a commonor who was unafraid to stand up to an arrogant aristocrat. Following this argument the two men championed opposing schools of literature. Sidney formed the romantic school of writers whereas de Vere became the patron of the Euphuist writing school. Both schools were highly dismissive of one another. Oxfordians state that de Vere was Shakespeare but it is very difficult to reconcile this with the demonstrable fact that Shakespeare constantly refers to and quotes from Sidney's work throughout all of his sonnets. Sidney is actually the pervasive influence on Shakespeare .Shakespeare did use the Euphuistic writing style at times but it was almost always with characters who he was lampooning. It is clear that Shakespeare admired Sidney but it is equally clear that Sidney and de Vere detested each other. If de Vere was Shakespeare he would not be making extensive quotes from an author who he personally disliked and also an author who followed an opposing literary ideation. The first publication of the Astrophil and Stella sequence was a pirated edition that contained some of Edward de Vere's poetry, Mary Sidney would have been fully aware of her brothers dislike of de Vere and weeded these poems out in the authorised version of the book. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=115754143 115754143 My name receives a brand In sonnet 111 Shakespeare bemoans the fact that as a writer he has been typecast as a populist writer. " My name receives a brand ". It is not difficult to discover what brand was associated with Shakespeare's name. Sweet Shakespeare William Covell 1595 Ile worship sweet Mr Shakespeare ( Ironic attack on Shakespeare Return from Parnassus 1598) Honey Flowing vain Richard Barnfield 1598 Honey tounged Shakespeare Francis Meres Much of this is not praise , Honey tounged was the biblical name for a deceitful flatterer, and Sweet Shakespeare and his works of love were soundly lampooned in the Parnassus plays. The term sweet in those plays was implying sickening and certainly wasn't intended as being praise. Shakespeare had clearly obtained the "Brand " of a writer who wrote mainly about love ( Francis Meres confirms this in his 1598 appraisal of Shakespeare) and also as a writer who was skilled in the art of verbal seduction. The Parnassus plays depict Shakespeare as being a writer given to writing in a sensational way about love. Shakespeare himself used the term Honey tounged in a derogatory way in Loves Labour Lost when Berowne chides Boyet's honey tounge since Berowne ( A character I identify as being William Shakespeare) is jealous of Boyet's close relationship with Rosaline ( A woman I identfy as being the Dark Lady Penelope Rich.In Shakespeare's lifetime his public imaged shifted from the upstart plagarist that Greene had labeled him as to a smooth talking poet of love who was considered to be a writer more suitable for the uneducated massess and the younger generation of educated people it was probably a slow process for him to be realised as a serious writer ( no London monument or state funeral was offered to him as had been the case for Sidney and to a lesser degree Spenser) . Shakespeares reputation grew to a greater extent after his death than it did in his own lifetime.. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=116958777 116958777 Thanks Thanks for reading my theory please direct others to my page who you think will be interested. Best Wishes to all Michael Mooten. http://willobiehisavisadecoded.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=109605308 109605308